Summary: I have pulled an offline image from a reference system and I get an error on boot "Windows could not start the offline files service on Local Computer. Error 3: The system cannot find the path specified."
Cause: The reference system has Offline File Service enabled.
In most cases, you can repair the affected system by running the following line from the run command:
REG ADD "HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\CSC\Parameters" /v FormatDatabase /t REG_DWORD /d 1 /f
In order to prevent the issue disable the Offline File Service prior to capturing the reference image. The service can be enabled via GPO after imaging as seen here: