In this article, we will take you through the database migration process from SharePoint 2010 to SharePoint 2013. An overview of the SharePoint database migration process to a new server is available on the ShareGate website. Here is a step-by-step guideline for the same.

Step 1 : Make two servers available for the process. Both the servers need to run on the same environment. For instance, Server 1 should run on Windows 2008, SQL server 2008 and include SharePoint 2010. Server 2 should run on Windows 2008, SQL server 2008 and include SharePoint 2013.

Step 2 : You must begin with backing up the data from Server 1. To do this, 

a) While on SharePoint 2010, pick the database of the port you want to back-up. Right click and from the options that appear, click Tasks → Back Up.

b) In the subsequent window that opens, click 'Add'

c) Copy the location available under the 'Destination' field and save it a notepad for later use.

Step 3 : On server 2, launch SharePoint 2013 and create a new web application under any port. If you are not sure, pick port 88. 

Step 4 : Once a new application has been created, perform the following steps: 

a) Under Central Administration, select Application Management → Manage Content Databases

b) Under the newly created web application, select 'Remove content database checkbox'. Click OK and SAVE

c) Under the Content Database section, you should now see a message that reads, “There are no items to show in this view'

Step 5 : The next step is to restore the database from SharePoint 2010 to the new server. To accomplish this, copy the WSS_Content.bak file from Server 1 on to the desktop or any convenient location on the computer handling Server 2.

Step 6 : In SharePoint 2013, launch SQL Server 2008 and right click on the node titled Database and from the options, choose 'Restore Database'. 

Step 7 : A new 'Restore Database' window now opens. Here, select the 'From Device' radio button and browse through your system folders to select the WSS_Content.bak file that we had earlier copied in Step 5. Click OK 

Step 8 : Next, under the 'Options' tab of the Restore Database window, check the box that reads, “Overwrite the existing database (WITH REPLACE)”. Press OK to continue. A message box appears that confirms the operation. Press OK to close this box. 

Step 9 : Open SharePoint 2013 and navigate to Central Administration → Application Management → Manage Content Databases. You should now see the WSS_Content.bak file displayed here. 

Step 10 : On the top of the window, you will see a message. Click on the 'Start Now' link to continue. 

Step 11 : In the subsequent window, click on the 'Upgrade the site collection' option. You will be shown a message box. Click 'I'm Ready' to continue. 

Step 12 : The upgradation process will now begin. This typically takes a few minutes. Once you are done, you will be shown a message that reads, “Upgrade Completed Successfully” 

This completes the process. Your content database migration from SharePoint 2010 to SharePoint 2013 has been completed successfully.